The “Tonda Gentile” variety has naturally originated in Piedmont, in the Langhe region. The plant naturally grows in the deciduous’ woods, till 1000 mt. Above sea level, as a wild species. The plant, to be profitable has to be cultivated as a normal fruit tree, in a prolific land conveniently prepared.
Hazelnut needs drained soils, therefore, soils with high water stagnation have to be avoided. Appropriated pruning helps the plant to maintain a normal and regular production of buds and fruits. The multiplication is a very complex practice, since it cannot be sustained using the seeds but it require a portion of the mother plant.
Nowadays, hazelnut multiplication is performed extirpating shoots from mother plants, which are stimulated to emit new shoots every year. These little plants have to be placed in the plant nursery, where they are carefully cultivated for 1-2 years. Then they can be implanted in prepared lands.
This technique is not the only one used, other techniques could be:
Marcottage of stump: stumps, of at least 3 years old, are totally catted in order to stimulate a huge production of shoots. In June, these shoots are ringed and covered in topsoil. The ring is used to stimulate the emission of roots above it;
Offshoot: a shoot from the mother plant is curved and partly covered, in order to stimulate the plant to take roots;
Multiplication by mitosis: this technique is used in specialized laboratory, where the bud is stimulated to germinate in a specific gel and then transferred in topsoil. After 1 year of nursery, the plants are ready to be transplanted.
This technique permit to pass on the same DNA of the mother plant to the shoot.